One Health PACT is a Dutch project to anticipate outbreaks of infectious diseases in humans and animals. High population density, with large numbers of farm animals in a wetland and canal landscape, and intense international and traveler trade, make the Netherlands a region vulnerable to outbreaks of infectious diseases. The objective of the project is to prepare the country for more frequent home outbreaks in Europe in an integrated way.

The One Healt PACT team focuses primarily on vector-borne diseases, primarily mosquitoes. In recent decades, international trade has led to the introduction of exotic mosquito spices in Europe, and climate change is favoring its spread throughout the continent. Invasive mosquitoes such as the tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) can transmit the viruses of diseases such as dengue, Zika or chikungunya. But also native mosquitoes, such as the common mosquito (Culex pipiens) can transmit viruses of tropical origin, mainly among birds, which occasionally can jump to humans.

The One Health PACT approach consists of four complementary and interactive pillars between them:

  1. Ecosystem mapping
  2. Prognosis and early detection
  3. Evaluation of impact and severity
  4. Interventions

The project’s ambition is to be prepared for arbovirus outbreaks in environments that are rapidly changing due to both climate change and landscape management and exploitation practices. Early detection of viruses and their risks can save lives.

 

The project consists of creating a Versatile Emerging Infectious Diseases Observatory (VEO) that allows to gather high quality information from which to develop early warning tools. The observatory will monitor emerging infectious diseases, as well as the appearance of bacterial resistance, in order to carry out a risk assessment.

VEO has the vision of being able to revolutionize the detection and prediction of threats to human and animal health derived from global changes. This revolution involves creating interdisciplinary teams, infrastructures and versatile technologies, working with open data and code, combining very diverse data (Big Data) and with data mining techniques to analyze a large volume of information to deduce patterns and be able to predict risks.

So, the project has seven specific defined objectives.

  1. Develop a data platform that enables very diverse data integration, exchange between experts, and data mining. Tools to support interdisciplinary collaboration and international teams that make up the VEO system.
  2.  Generate, update and validate inventories of genetic signatures associated with relevant pathogens, identify the relationship between genetic variations and the pathogenesis of a virus or bacterium in order to assess risk from genetic monitoring.
  3. Integrate serological data from new antibody profiling technologies in the VEO database.
  4. Evaluate the VEO system in five specific scenarios to ensure that it meets the needs of users and assess the functionality of the techniques and tools developed.
  5. Develop a commitment to general needs rather than exploring the data, the challenges that come up, and finding solutions.
  6. Develop a guide to the ethical, legal and social implications of collecting and integrating large amounts of epidemiological data, as well as the ethical and legal implications of health research aided by citizen science.

 

Many organisms form social systems, but most research does not consider collective processes to explain their ecological and evolutionary consequences for individuals and populations in stochastic environments. This application will help to produce a new hitherto unconsidered synthesis whereby I will integrate behaviour, social networks and movement with fitness variance and population dynamics in social organisms.

Novel analytical and technical methods now enable a generation of empirical and theoretical knowledge to quantify the influence of social networks and their emergent properties on collective motion. By applying these advances in the lab, in the field and in theory, I will proceed in three steps.

  1. We determine, using lab and field data at a range of scales and life histories, how the features of social networks influence decision-making to drive searching trajectories for accessing resources in social species.
  2. We assess how the attributes of searching trajectories in social groups relate to fitness parameters, and how collective movement, including group dispersal, influences population and metapopulation dynamics.
  3. We build on previous steps to develop ecological theory for exactly decomposing how sociality and searching movement generate emergent properties and modulate life histories and population dynamics in variable environments.

This combined, interdisciplinary approach will lead to major advances in our understanding of critical transitions and other non-linearities due to feedbacks common to social systems, and will allow us building a unified social ecology for movement, life histories and population dynamics.

Author: Mike Lockwood

Periodic monitoring of biodiversity can boost the ecosystem capacity to cope with disturbance identifying risk factors, predicting phase shifts under future climate scenarios, and suggesting cost-effective management to reduce their impacts. This is particularly true in the ocean, where its out-of-sight nature may cause major alterations to pass unnoticed before damage is irreversible.

The worldwide biodiversity loss trend is also present in our coasts, where the dominance of habitat-forming macroalgae and their associated biodiversity have declined from the Bay of Biscay to the Canary Islands and is expected to do so in the near future. Identifying national biodiversity hotspots at high risk of collapse is critical to minimize the chances of losing our biodiversity. But Spain lacks the comprehensive and periodic biodiversity monitoring program needed to reach such goals.

DIVERSAT builds upon our previous MINECO grant, which identified national hotspots and their risk of collapse, to provide a novel five-year evolution of the biodiversity status of Spanish littoral reefs. A reliable biodiversity trend assessment can trigger mitigating actions before degradation affects our society.

DIVERSAT seeks funding to establish a regular biodiversity monitoring of the Spanish littoral reefs to make progress toward the first nation-wide, and multi-purpose monitoring program of these productive communities that will allow testing new spatial and temporal hypotheses. Our data will allow accurate quantification of many biodiversity metrics that contribute to multiple Aichi Targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

The project will specifically quantify multiple biodiversity indicators including resilience and risk of collapse to assess their evolution over the last five years. With extensive data and a variety of modeling techniques, we aim to create a predictive understanding of biodiversity responses of Spanish marine littoral reefs to climate change and also calculate for the first time a community thermal index that will allow tracking climate change effects on littoral reefs over the last five years and predicting climate change effects over future climate scenarios.

Spain stands at a crossroads. The expansion of Ae.albopictus throughout the Iberian Peninsula and the arrival of Ae.aegypti in the Canary Islands have increased the risk of serious outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, or Zika, in Spain. With hundreds of imported cases already co-present with vectors, and autochthonous dengue transmissions confirmed in 2018, it is only a matter of time before Spain is faced with a serious public health crisis. Yet Spain lacks reliable information about disease risk patterns and the dynamics of potential outbreaks.

This project will fill this gap by bringing together experts in epidemiology, entomology, big data, movement ecology and socio-demography to build an innovative system that can harness the data revolution for public health preparedness. It will produce vital, comprehensive, actionable knowledge about mosquito-borne disease (MBD) risks and potential outbreaks in Spain.

It will fuse multiple big data sources and employ cutting edge modelling and infrastructure to:

  1. Explore determinants and distribution of MBD risk
  2. Illuminate links between social inequality and MBDs
  3. Infer the role of human mobility in MBD risk
  4. Ensure continuous model calibration and update
  5. Deliver real-time models to public health agencies.

The system will give decision-makers the information they need, while also making raw data and open source code available for continuous improvement through open innovation.

Invasive species, such as rats, are one of the most severe agents of global change, which threatens the planet’s biodiversity. Since man has sailed the seas 40 millennia ago, rats have been stowaways on boats that reached the most remote islands, where there were no predators to contain their great ecological opportunism. The changes that rats have generated are very important, since, by breaking into simple and vulnerable systems such as insular ones, they alter the entire ecosystem. Rats have been the cause of the extinction of many endemic organisms, unique to these islands, such as invertebrates, reptiles and birds. On the island of Dragonera, the presence of the rat dates back to the arrival of man, approximately 4 millennia ago. Since then, the island’s biodiversity and its ecological processes have remained altered, and only now, after an innovative and successful rat eradication action carried out in 2011, can the island regain its original ecological dynamics.

This project, funded by BBVA Foundation, aims to evaluate the effects of rat eradication on fauna and vegetation taking into account their trophic and competition interactions. We will study how resilience mechanisms have operated, that is, the processes that buffer disturbances to minimize damage and resist impacts. No project has so far been carried out throughout the Mediterranean on this scale, on an island on the surface of Dragonera, of more than 350 hectares. The work team is made up of ecologists, physicists, mathematicians and geographers who will approach the project from a transdisciplinary and holistic perspective, considering the island a unique system where processes occur in a linked and complex way. It is from this perspective that we will be able to better understand how the resilience of ecosystems operates, and how they recover after halting anthropogenic impacts.